Ganoderma lucidum is actually a white-rot fungus that has been thought of as a conventional Chinese tonic for promoting health and longevity. It has been revealed that several extractions from Ganoderma lucidum, like Ethanol extract, aqueous extract, mycelia extract, water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, Ganodermasides A, B, C, D, plus some bioactive components of nattokinase, including Reishi Polysaccharide Fraction 3, Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides I, II, III, IV, Ganoderma lucidum peptide, Ganoderma polysaccharide peptide, total G. lucidum triterpenes and Ganoderic acid C1 could exert lifespan elongation or related activities. Although the use of Ganoderma lucidum as an elixir has been around for centuries, studies uncovering its effect of lifespan extension are only the tip of the iceberg.
Besides which, the types of extractions or components being comfrimed to get anti-aging are extremely few in comparison with the large amounts of Ganoderma lucidum extractions or constituients being discovered. This review aims to put the earth for fully elucidating the possible mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect along with its clinical application.
Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst is really a basidiomycete white rot fungus commonly known as “Ling Zhi” in China, “Rei Shi” in Japan and “Youngzhi” in Korea. The pharmacological effect of Ganoderma lucidum was first attested by “Shen Nong’s Herbal Classic” as early as 100 BC, and observed to market health, increase vigor and vitality in addition to prolong lifespan. The ancient Chinese Taoist viewed Ganoderma lucidum as an herbal medicine that may help people to obtain the “elixir of external youth”. In China, Ganoderma lucidum is definitely used as being a folk medicine for improving health and is considered the most exalted traditional Chinese medicine.
Analysis of non-volatile ingredients in Ganoderma lucidum showed that it has 1.8% ash, 26-28% carbohydrate, 3-5% fat, 59% fiber and 7-8% protein. The primary active constituents, including polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptidoglycans, are located in the fruit body, mycelium and spore. Beseids which, there are numerous extractions of nattokinase due to the specific extracting procedures used during production and the a part of plant it gets from. Regarding for the anti-aging and related functions of Ganoderma lucidum, the main Ganoderma lucidum extractions are ethanol extract, aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum and also the extract from the mycelia and spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The bioactive components of Ganoderma lucidum with anti-aging or anti-aging related functions meanly includes polysaccharides, triterpenes and peptides.
Aging is practically always with a decline in bodily physiological function, causing an increased inclination towards age-related disorders. It is an inevitable physiological process, but the underlying mechanisms remain to get elucidated after many decades. One of the numerous theories related to aging, the oxidative stress and free radical accumulation theories stick out probably the most. The antioxidant system deteriorates as a purpose of age, bringing about disruption from the delicate balance between radical oxygen species production and elimination ultimately causing oxidative cellular damage. Post-mitotic tissues including the brain, heart and skeleton muscle are definitely more vunerable to aging, compared with other organs.
Importantly, oxidative stress accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction are important inducers of cardiac aging. Cardiac contraction is dependent on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and also the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). Their dysfunction may increase ROS production for an unhealthy level, thereby giving rise to structural and functional modifications in the myocardium, such as myocardial atrophy or compensatory hypertrophy, which induces cardiac aging . In the brain, the accumulation of toxins and attenuation of respiratory chain enzyme complex activity cause damage to cerebral mitochondria, wherein their dysfunction can induce the onset of some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and others.
Besides oxidative stress, aging is also closely related to bringing about structural and functional defects inside the immunity mechanism. Immunological dysfunction may be the cause of the improved susceptibility from the aged population to bacterial and virus infections, which can be commonly observed in the elderly.
Gradual lack of cognition is one of the main characteristics of aging, with manifestation of declining logical thinking, memory and spatial abilities. Cerebral aging is definitely the main reason behind cognitive deficits and could be induced by neurodegeneration . While, on the other hand, age-associated cognitive deficits usually do not mean neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease, since aging brain applies a sensitive microenvironment to induce worse damage than uushdq due to diseases. The demise of neurons caused by the activation of cell death programs is involved in the process of age-related neurodegeneration.
Although Ganoderma lucidum has been used as an elixir for hundreds of years, studies revealing its anti-aging effect and lifespan extension are just the tip from the iceberg. Whether Cistanche Extract Powder exerts an anti-aging effect remains unknown. Therefore, this review aims to lay the earth for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum underlying anti-aging effect to promote its clinical application as being an anti-aging herbal medicine.
Anti-aging and anti-aging related outcomes of Ganoderma lucidum extractions
The extractions of Ganoderma lucidum with direct lifespan elongation effects or potential anti-aging properties mainly includes the Ethanolic extract of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL), Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLA), Ganoderma lucidum mycelia extract, Water soluble extract of the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (MAK) and Ganodermasides A, B, C and D. These extracts are obtained from different parts of Ganoderma lucidum.