Ganoderma lucidum is actually a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The current study evaluated the antitumor outcomes of self-prepared ganoderma lucidum spore oil and spores oil, and investigated the potential underlying mechanisms by observing the results of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases as well as the cell cycle. The outcomes demonstrated that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells.
Ganoderma lucidum, also called Ganoderma or Lingzhi, is one of most frequently used fungi in Chinese medicine. Modern pharmacological and clinical studies have confirmed that Ganoderma contains abundant biologically active substances in the fruiting body, mycelia and spores, and possesses variable functions, including immunomodulation, anti-aging, reducing blood lipids, anti-viral and anti-tumor activities (1-6). The present study examined the antitumor activity of a blend of aqueous and ethanol extracts in the Ganoderma fruiting body and Ganoderma spores oil, that was obtained from broken spores by supercritical CO2 extraction technology and explored the potential underlying mechanisms. DNA topoisomerases are a class of enzymes active in the regulating DNA supercoiling.
Topoisomerase overexpression continues to be connected to several human malignancies and is the prospective for numerous chemotherapeutic agents (7). When topoisomerases are blocked, the cell encounters problems during transcription from the DNA and through cell division. The widely-used antitumor drug, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases and induces significant G1 cell cycle arrest (8). A previous study indicated that the active aspects of Ganoderma exhibited inhibition of topoisomerases (9). The present study examined whether Ganoderma extracts and spore oil affected the cell cycle and topoisomerases I and II.
Preparations of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil – Ganoderma extracts (GanoHerb™) and Ganoderma spores oil were provided by Fujian Xianzhilou Biological Science and Technology Co., Ltd. (Fuzhou, China). Ganoderma extract, a brown powder, was dissolved in double distilled water to get ready solutions of numerous concentrations, which were brown suspensions. Ganoderma spores oil had been a soft capsule with .5 g/.5 ml golden oil in each capsule. The stock solution of Coriolus Versicolor Extract were prepared using double distilled water that contained 6 µl/ml (v/v) Tween 80.
Recently, the impact of Ganoderma on tumors continues to be increasingly studied. The present study stated that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the growth of human leukemia cells (K562 and HL60) and human gastric carcinoma cells (SGC-7901) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Ganoderma extracts and spores significantly suppressed the expansion in the S180 and H22 transplant tumors in mice. Therefore, Ganoderma extracts and spores oil demonstrated definite antitumor effects in the in vitro vrlzqn in vivo studies.
Since ancient times, Ganoderma has become commonly used being a popular herbal medicine for that promotion of health (11). Numerous previous studies examined the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma (12,13). By detecting the immunity indexes of mice bearing S180 or H22 cells, Ganoderma extracts were concluded to possess a certain impact on improving immune function, while Ganoderma spores oil had no significant effect on the spleen or thymus indexes of mice. One of the main components of Ganoderma extract is a polysaccharide that has been reported as immune function enhancer (12-15). Because there were few polysaccharides (water-soluble substances) inside the Ganoderma spores oil, the spores oil exhibited no evident effect on immunity. The present study also indicated that the antitumor effects of Ganoderma could be safer in contrast to 5-FU, which ended in the decreased weight and immunity indexes of mice (Tables I and ?andIIII).
To investigate the potential mechanism of Agaricus Blazei Extract, the effects of extracts and spores oil on topoisomerases as well as the effect of spores oil on the cell cycle were examined.
DNA topoisomerases really are a class of enzymes involved in the regulation of DNA supercoiling. Type I topoisomerases change the degree of supercoiling of DNA by causing single-strand breaks and religation, whereas type II topoisomerases cause double-strand breaks. These two activities are particularly crucial during DNA transcription and replication, once the DNA helix must be unwound to permit proper function of large enzymatic machinery. Cancer chemotherapy uses this finding, using drugs that block topoisomerases to kill rapidly-dividing cancer cells. For example, the widely-used anthracycline drugs, like doxorubicin and daunorubicin, attack class II topoisomerases and also the plant toxin, campothecin, blocks the relaxing action of class I topoisomerases.